Bretton Woods Institutions


  • 1944 - Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, 43 countries
  • help rebuild shattered postwar economy
  • promote international economic cooperation
  • to avoid WW-III & Great Depression-II
  • 3-pillars
    1. Currency Stability
    2. Credit & financial institutions
    3. Free international trade investment

    World Bank

  • IBRD Originally (Int'l Bank for Reconstruction & development)
  • Development assistance to weaker countries
  • Starved of funds by controlling ministers
  • IMF

  • Monitor exchange rates, encourage int'l trade
  • Short-term Balance of payment deficits
  • Long-term → US Aid
  • Voting Rights Proportional to contributions to the fund
  • GATT

  • Non-discrimination b/w countries
  • Progressive reduction of tariffs.
  • WTO

    1925 GENEVA Protocol - Chemical/Biological Weapons

    Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare

    SIGNATO: 38

    PARTIES: 140

    Signed : 1925-Jun-17

    Effect : 1928-Feb-08

    Prohibits use of:

    "asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices"

    and "bacteriological methods of warfare"

    1972 Biological Weapons Convention

    No verification mechanism, negotiations for a protocol to make up this lack halted by USA in 2001.

    1993 Chemical Weapons Convention

    Comprehensive bans on development, production, stockpiling and use of Chemical Weapons, with destruction timelines.

    1949 GENEVA Convention - Law during War

    Public International Law, also known as the Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflicts, whose purpose is to provide minimum protections, standards of humane treatment, and fundamental guarantees of respect to individuals who become victims of armed conflicts.


    Article 2 - Int'l Conflict

  • Common Article 2 relating to international armed conflicts
  • This article states that the Geneva Conventions apply to all cases of international conflict, where at least one of the warring nations have ratified the Conventions. Primarily:
  • The Conventions apply to all cases of declared war between signatory nations. This is the original sense of applicability, which predates the 1949 version.
  • The Conventions apply to all cases of armed conflict between two or more signatory nations, even in the absence of a declaration of war. This language was added in 1949 to accommodate situations that have all the characteristics of war without the existence of a formal declaration of war, such as a police action.
  • The Conventions apply to a signatory nation even if the opposing nation is not a signatory, but only if the opposing nation "accepts and applies the provisions" of the Conventions.
  • Article 3- Non-Int'l Conflict

  • Common Article 3 relating to non-international armed conflict
  • This article states that the certain minimum rules of war apply to armed conflicts that are not of an international character, but that are contained within the boundaries of a single country.
  • The applicability of this article rests on the interpretation of the term armed conflict.
  • Ex: it would apply to conflicts between the Government and rebel forces, or between two rebel forces, or to other conflicts that have all the characteristics of war but that are carried out within the confines of a single country. A handful of individuals attacking a police station would not be considered an armed conflict subject to this article, but only subject to the laws of the country in question.
  • The other Geneva Conventions are not applicable in this situation but only the provisions contained within Article 3, and additionally within the language of Protocol II.
  • The rationale for the limitation is to avoid conflict with the rights of Sovereign States that were not part of the treaties.
  • Convention I - Wounded/Sick Forces in Fields

  • 1864 - Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field
  • This Convention protects wounded and infirm soldiers and medical personnel, who are not taking active part in hostility against a Party, ensuring humane treatment without adverse distinctions founded on race, color, sex, religion or faith, birth or wealth, etc. To that end, the Convention prohibits execution without judgment, torture, and assaults upon personal dignity (Article 3). It also grants them the right to proper medical treatment and care.
  • Convention II - Wounded/Sick/Shipwrecked Forces at Sea

  • 1906 - Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea
  • This agreement extended the protections mentioned in the first Convention to shipwrecked soldiers and other naval forces, including special protections afforded to hospital ships.
  • Convention III - Treatment of POWs

  • 1929 - Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War
  • One of the treaties created during the 1949 Convention, this defined what a Prisoner of War was, and accorded them proper and humane treatment as specified by the first Convention. Specifically, it required POWs to give only their name, rank, and serial number to their captors. Nations party to the Convention may not use torture to extract information from POWs.
  • Convention IV - Civilians in War

  • 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War
  • Under this Convention, civilians are afforded the protections from inhumane treatment and attack afforded in the first Convention to sick and wounded soldiers. Furthermore, additional regulations regarding the treatment of civilians were introduced. Specifically, it prohibits attacks on civilian hospitals, medical transports, etc. It also specifies the right of internees, and those who commit acts of sabotage. Finally, it discusses how occupiers are to treat an occupied populace.
  • Protocol I - Protection of Victims of Int'l Armed Conflicts

  • 1977 - Victims of International Armed Conflicts
  • In this additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions, the signing Nations agreed to further restrictions on the treatment of "protected persons" according to the original Conventions. Furthermore, clarification of the terms used in the Conventions was introduced. Finally, new rules regarding the treatment of the deceased, cultural artifacts, and dangerous targets (such as dams and nuclear installations) were produced.
  • Protocol II - Protection of Victims of Non-Int'l Armed Conflicts

  • 1977 - Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts
  • In this Protocol, the fundamentals of "humane treatment" were further clarified. Additionally, the rights of interned persons were specifically enumerated, providing protections for those charged with crimes during wartime. It also identified new protections and rights of civilian populations.
  • Protocol III - Distinctive Emblem

  • 2005 - Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem
  • Under the protocol, the protective sign of the Red Crystal may be displayed by medical and religious personnel at times of war, instead of the traditional Red Cross, or Red Crescent symbols. People displaying any of these protective emblems are performing a humanitarian service and must be protected by all parties to the conflict.
  • 1992 UNFCCC - UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

  • S:165; R:197; NYC
  • Stabilize GHG concentration at levels which would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference
  • Annual COP since 1995 (Conference of Parties)

  • Legally binding limits for developed countries
  • 2002 COP-08: DELHI

    2009 COP-15: COPENHAGEN

  • 'meaningful agreement'; WEAK; NSA-spying charge

  • limit global warming to 2°C wrt pre-industrial
  • 2012 COP-18: DOHA

  • extend Kyoto's 2012 limit to 2020

  • w.r.t. 2°C limit, keep it below ~1.5°C
  • increase ability to adapt to climate change
  • limit GHG without threatening food production
  • make financial flows consistent with pathways towards low GHGs
  • Lack of Binding Enforcement Mechanism: Circular Logic
  • an agreement presupposing in advance what it wants to achieve (w.r.t. US, CHN, IND, BRA, CAD, RUS, AUS)
  • 1982 UNCLOS - UN Convention on Laws of Sea

  • S: 157; P: 168
  • 1956 UNCLOS I, Geneva - 4 Treaties

    1. Convention on Territorial Sea & Contiguous Zone
    2. Convention on Continental Shelf
    3. Convention on High Seas
    4. Convention on Fishing & Conservation of Living Resources of High Seas

    1960 UNCLOS II, Geneva - No New Treaties

    1973 UNCLOS III, NYC

  • Internal Waters
  • Territorial Waters (12 Nautical mi ~14 mi)
  • Archipelagic Waters
  • Contiguous Zone (12+12 Nautical mi)
  • Exclusive Economic Zone (200 Nautical mi)
  • Continental Shelf
  • 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage

  • S:13; P:40
  • 1994 Convention on Nuclear Safety (VIENNA)

  • S:65; P:78
  • obligation on State Parties w.r.t. rule for civil nuclear safety
  • site selection, design, construction, operation, safety verification & emergency preparedness
  • 1996 CTBT - Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

  • multilateral treaty
  • states agree to ban all nuclear explosions in all environments for civil or military use.
  • states that need to take action:
  • China, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, N Korea, Pakistan, USA

    1963 PTBT Partial Test Ban Treaty

  • Allowed underground explosions
  • 1968 NPT

  • India, Pakistan, Israel object discrimination
  • Obligations (Article I)

  • States to not carry out N explosions, prohibit explosions in its jurisdiction
  • Refrain from causing/encouraging/participating in N explosions